After Julius Caesar’s death, his adopted son Octavian, took control of Caesar’s wealth. Octavian used this wealth to make a memorial for Caesar and he invited everyone in Rome, including the poor people. He gave gifts to them and because he did this, people thought he was very generous. When he had done this, he became very popular with the people, as well as with the military. But the military loved him because he was Caesar’s adopted son. So Octavian went to the senators and asked them to make him consul. Even though the senators didn’t want to do this, they feared the people might riot and rebel against Rome. So they accepted him as consul. He worked together with Anthony, and Lepidus, who worked with him well. However, as Lepidus left them, Anthony and Octavian started to fight against each other.

Then there was a civil war between the two. While this civil war was going on, Anthony made allies with Egypt, because he loved Cleopatra there. With Octavian winning more and more battles, Anthony sent generals to fight Octavian as he stayed with Cleopatra. But it all came to a turn when one of Anthony’s former generals betrayed him and gave Anthony’s battle plans to Octavian. With this, he fought them in the battle of Actium, and it ended up with Octavian winning against Cleopatra and Anthony and ending the war. When he came back to Rome, he decided to give his power back to the Senate. The Senate, however, was still afraid that if he gave up power, the people would rebel. So they said to him, we will make you our king, for you have brought peace to Rome. Octavian didn’t want to be called king, so the senators decided that he should be called First Citizen or Prince, which means Princeps in Rome. The senators also changed his name to Augustus and named a month after his name. That month is August, and they made a month for Caesar, which is July. Augustus Caesar ruled Rome until his death, in A.D 14.

7/21/23

 The Beginning of Christianity 

 Augustus Caesar ruled over many countries, including Judea. At this time, there was a girl who lived in Judea, and her name was Mary. She was engaged to a man named Joseph. While this happened, Joseph and Mary were engaged to each other, and they also were preparing for their wedding day. But before the wedding day, an angel went to Mary, and told her that she would become pregnant with a baby boy, that was to be named Jesus. When Mary told Joseph this, Joseph was afraid to marry Mary now, if a woman was pregnant and was not married, then she must be stoned to death. Joseph was then sleeping when an angel appeared to him in a dream, telling him not to be afraid to marry Mary, for God did this for a good purpose. When he heard this, he was not afraid to marry Mary anymore. After they married, they had to go to Joseph’s hometown, because the Emperor ordered a census for everyone in Judea. When they got there, Mary was going to have her baby, so they tried to go to any inn they could go in. But they were all full! So one of the innkeepers offered his stable for the baby to be born. When the baby was born, shepherds found a special star that led to Jesus. Angels arrived to them singing, telling them that they should go there. The shepherds went to where Jesus was, and they bowed down, for the angels had said a king had been born! Later on, three, wise, men saw the star that led to Jesus, and they went there. On their way there, they stopped by to see Herod, the governor of Judea at the time. With the three men talking about a new, king, Herod told them that he was interested in Jesus, and wanted them to bring Jesus to him. However, this was a trick so that Herod could kill him. When the three, wise, men finally met Jesus, they gave him gold, myrrh, and frankincense, the only gifts that kings would get! That night, when they slept, an angel told them that they shouldn’t tell Herod where the baby was. The three wise men listened to the angel and went a different path. When Jesus was twelve, he was already preaching to many people worried, however, he was gone for a few days. When they found him, he told them that that was his Father’s house.

As Jesus grew up, he started to preach God’s Word. He also got twelve disciples to follow him everywhere he went. Jesus then went to John the Baptist, so that he could be baptized. John the Baptist was Jesus’ cousin, so they knew each other. After Jesus was baptized, a dove landed on his head. After this, Jesus preached God’s Word, and many people wanted to listen to him. He also healed the sick, and the lepers, raised people from the dead, turned water into wine, and more! As he did this, he became very famous, because people heard of his preaching and him healing people. The Pharisees didn’t like Jesus because the people were coming to Jesus. When Jesus was in his 30s, the Pharisees told one of Jesus’ disciples that if he betrayed Jesus, they would give him 30 pieces of silver. This disciple was Judas Iscariot, and he accepted the Pharisee’s offer. While Jesus was having Passover with his disciples, Judas said he had to go. But Jesus already knew that Judas betrayed him. So when Judas came back, he was with Temple guards, and Roman soldiers, to arrest Jesus. Judas told them that whoever he kissed on the cheek, was Jesus. After he did this, they arrested Jesus and gave him to the high priest, who made false accusations against him. Then they sent to Pilate, who ordered him whipped and set free. But then he let the crowd choose a criminal, or The King of the Jews. They chose the criminal, so Pilate asked the crowd what to do with Jesus. They said, “Crucify him crucify him!”. He told them that it was not his fault that Jesus must die. Then he ordered Jesus executed on Golgotha. On the hill, he was with two other criminals beside him. The people started insulting him. Even one of the criminals was insulting him. But Jesus said to God forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing. Then he said It is finished! And so he died. After these words, there was a storm. His body was then buried in a tomb by his disciples. But three days later, his body rose from the dead, and then met the ten disciples, for Judas hanged himself, and there was a disciple that wasn’t there. When all the disciples were there, Jesus appeared again and all of them saw Jesus again. Jesus had to go up to his Father though, and told them that he would come back soon. As his disciples watched him fly up to Heaven, or the New Jerusalem. 

 8/4/23

 The End of the Ancient Jewish Nation

 After Augustus, and many other Emperors after him, there was another civil war in Rome. During this civil war, the Jews started to rebel. They were ruled by many nations, and now they wanted to be free. So armed Jews called zealots, started to fight Roman soldiers. And so the Jewish Revolt began. They also were trying to take back Canaan from the Romans. At first, they were successful. But things changed after the civil war. When the Emperor of Rome, heard of this rebellion, he sent three or four legions that were told to destroy Jerusalem. The Jews probably knew the Romans were coming. When the Romans got there, they fought the Jews. The Romans were winning. Soon, the Jews were worried. Then, the Romans sieged Jerusalem. The Romans sieged Jerusalem and waited for the people to starve. The Romans then attacked Jerusalem, but it failed. They did another attack on Jerusalem, only this time with siege towers. But the Jews made an underground tunnel and set it to flames, killing many in the siege towers. However, the Jews were now starving and the underground tunnel collapsed, creating a vulnerable area for the Romans to take over. Since the Jews were starving, they started to eat their children, making them cannibals. The Romans did a third attack on Jerusalem. This time, it was successful. The Romans were in the city. But the Jews were gonna fight to the very last woman, child, and man. But it was no help. The Romans were too strong for the Jews. After fighting the Jews in the city, they started to destroy their Temple, which had gold and silver inside. An Ancient historian wrote that gold and silver melted down the huge stones. Roman soldiers, wanted this wealth to become rich. So they pried the huge stones, destroying the Temple’s foundation. And with the Temple, and Jerusalem destroyed, the Jews surrendered to the Romans, in 70 A.D.

 8/4/23

 Rome begins to Weaken 

Rome was prosperous when it had good emperors, but as time went on, some bad emperors weakened Rome, as well as civil wars. And since there were bad emperors, there would also be rebellions as well. One of these rebellions was in Britain. It was led by Boudica, and she started to lead raids against Rome. While these raids were happening, many Romans became so afraid, that they had dreams that Boudica would defeat the Romans. She then raided London, the later capital of Britain. After many raids, she gathered an army of two hundred thirty thousand British rebels. The Romans knew they had to do something, or else they would become too powerful. So they raised an army of ten thousand Roman soldiers. The Romans were outnumbered, prepared to fight against the army of two hundred thirty thousand British troops. The British soldiers, charged the Romans, each one doing what he wanted. Meanwhile, the Romans stayed in position and followed their general’s orders. Although the enemy had more troops, the Romans won! During the battle, the British rebels lost 80,000 British rebels, Meanwhile, the Romans only lost 400 soldiers. When Boudica saw that she had lost the battle, she drank poison to avoid capture. The British rebels were defeated in 60 or 61 A.D. 

 As time went on, the Roman Empire became weaker and weaker. So one emperor, Diocletian, decided to split the empire in half. He thought this was a good idea because the Roman empire was too big for one man to rule alone. So he ruled the Eastern half and gave the other half to a man named Maximian. They were called the Western Roman Empire, and the Eastern Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire became richer and richer, meanwhile, the Western Roman Empire became poorer and poorer. When the Western Roman Empire was weak, barbaric tribes started to invade. they took France, Spain, and Britain. Soon, there were Huns from Asia, and they wanted Roman land too. They invaded the Western part of Rome and then went into Italy. They demanded that if the Romans gave them gold, they would leave. So they did just that. And as Barbarians started to settle down, they married Roman women and started families. One of these families gave birth to a boy named Stilicho. 

 As Stilicho grew up, he thought of himself as all Roman, not half-Roman and half-barbarian. He became a soldier in the Roman army and was very brave in battle. The emperor soon took notice of this. So the emperor appointed him as general against the Visigoths, a barbaric tribe. He also started to fall in love with the emperor’s daughter, and they were soon married. As he started to fight against the Visigoths, he fought them for many years. But since the Visigoths kept on coming back, he told the people of Rome, that if they paid the Visigoths 4,000 pounds, they would leave the Romans alone. But the Romans thought Stlicho wasn’t doing his best. So they executed him. 2 years later after his death, the Visigoths returned. They attacked the city of Rome. They killed all the remaining soldiers. They took all the things they thought were valuable and left. 45 years after this devastating loss, another barbaric tribe, the Vandals also attacked the city of Rome. They took the people of Rome as hostages and destroyed everything in their path. And that was the end of the Roman empire.