As European countries explored the Americas, Africa, and Asia, the Catholic Church tried to hold on to its power in Europe. A man, Martin Luther, was a monk. He had to beg for food every day! He tried to do everything to please God but thought it wasn’t good enough. Every day Martin Luther worried that God was mad with him. Then, he was assigned to teach people about Romans in a university. The more Martin Luther read Romans, the more he changed the way he thought about God. At first, he thought God would love him if he did many good deeds and hard work. Instead, God loved him if he believed and did not do anything wrong. Then, he began to think about the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church did something called penance, where you give to the poor and confess your sins to everyone so that God could forgive you. However, you could get away with penance if you paid lots of money to the Church. These were called indulgences. Martin Luther thought this was wrong, as this was paying your way out of your sin. So, he wrote 95 reasons why indulgences were wrong. People began to think what else the Catholic Church was wrong about. One of these people was the king of England, Henry VIII. You see, Henry VIII was already married to the daughter of Spain (Catherine) and because she did not give him an heir to the throne, he had to divorce and marry again to get a son! So, he asked the pope if he could say that they were never even married in the first place. But since they had been married for eight years, the pope said that he couldn’t cancel the marriage. So when Henry VIII heard about Martin Luther and that the Church was wrong for indulgences, then maybe the pope was wrong with all sorts of things! He decided he would make the Church of England. That way, he had control of the Church of England instead of the pope. So Henry VIII divorced Catherine and married someone called Anne Boleyn. However, she never gave him a son so he ordered her to be executed! Imagine being executed just for not giving birth to a son! Because he had no more wife, he decided to marry a third time. Her name was Jane Seymour and this time, she gave birth to a son named Edward VI. It came to a tragic end, however, when she died two weeks later because of postnatal complications. He wasn’t sad for very long until he found another wife. So, he asked people to paint people who he can marry. He saw a painting of someone and said “I wanna marry her!” Her name was Anne of Cleves. But when he saw her in person, he realized the person who painted Anne of Cleves exagerated of how she looked. Although he didn’t want to marry her anymore, he didn’t want to offend her family. So he married her and divorced her. Anne of Cleves was relieved, as Henry VIII was an old man now and wasn’t handsome anymore. Then he married a lady called Catherine Howard. However, she then liked another man in the castle, and was executed. After a year had gone by, he married to a woman named Catherine Parr. Catherine Parr was like a caretaker to Henry VIII, as he was old now and was becoming sick. She also took care of his children until he died.